If you want to have fun and burn calories outside, go fishing. For many people, fishing means waiting to sit on a boat or on a bench. But it’s much more than that. Keeps you fit both physically and mentally. Reduces stress, puts you in shape and allows you to enjoy being outside. One of the obvious benefits of fishing is that it is a great way to exercise. If you are trying to fish against the tide or by walking on the shore of a remote lake, you are exercising without going to the gym. During a morning or afternoon fishing, you can burn 500 – 1,500 calories without going to the gym.
Fishing also allows you to improve your motor skills by operating small muscle groups that you do not normally use. Walking against a current in a river makes it difficult to balance. It provides strengthening of the muscles and tendons that are rarely used on your feet, wrists, and calves. Walking on steep slopes or riverside creates strength in large leg muscles such as quadriceps and hamstring. These activities are particularly beneficial for trout fishing. Increases your cardiovascular capacity at high altitudes. Your hands, wrists, forearms, biceps, triceps and small muscles on your shoulders are strengthened. Fishing is widely used as rehabilitation by psychologists, counselors, and physiotherapists.
Fishing is by nature a meditative activity that forces you to calm down and enjoy your surroundings. Fishing is a popular type of therapeutic exercise used by consultants and therapists working in severe cases. Fishing forces your mind and demands attention. Therapeutic experts claim that fishing requires focus, helping to drive one’s mind into internal conflict. You need to develop the right strategy to find the fish. Proper feeding to fish requires critical thinking and creativity. It allows a healthy escape from stress, depression, and anxiety.
The best thing about fishing is that it is an activity for everyone. It doesn’t matter how convenient you are, whether you are old or young, whether you are a man or a woman. There are no restrictions or limitations. It is almost one of the most popular entertainment activities in the world. It is good for chronic disease and post-traumatic stress. It helps you to have a healthy life. It allows you to explore your natural world and stay active until old age. It is a calm and pleasant activity. Try to find a fishing line and head for the river or the sea.
Fishing In Detail
Fishing is the hunting, farming, and trade of all kinds of fish living in the waters and the evaluation of fish products. Since ancient times, fishing which has been done to meet people’s food needs has evolved from hand-made fishing to modern fishing technology. As an amateur sport, many people are busy with it today. Continuous research has been conducted to benefit more from the blessings in the waters and new fishing methods have been developed in fisheries.
In ancient times, hand-made fishing on the edges of the water was done, then fishing began to be made with tools such as harpoons, fishing rods, and nets. In addition to coastal fishing with boats and ships, the developing technique today has led to the importance of offshore fishing. Fishing is no longer just for feeding. It has gained importance as a by-product of feed, perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. Since fishing is done in many different ways, its classification is quite detailed. Fishing is divided into two as amateur and professional. Professional fishing, on the other hand, is two types of coastal and offshore fishing. It also varies in terms of hunting equipment.
The fact that fishery is carried out in large amounts and uninformed by illegal techniques has caused some extinction of fish. When many disagreements occurred between the fishermen of different countries in offshore fishing; international laws and treaties on fishery have been prepared as a remedy. Fishermen are obliged to act in accordance with current laws and rules. Coastal fishing is done with small ships and boats, close to the coastal waters and inland seas. It may be done using a fishgarth, a fit net, purse seine net, and spreader nets. Caught fish are landed and sold within a day. In addition to netting, some fish such as swords and tunas are hunted with spearguns.
Offshore fishing takes place in large ships for months of hunting. Ships engaged in offshore fishing are either factory equipped or hunting and processing vessels in the form of fleets. Fish caught in hunting that lasts for months is processed instantly on the ships. When ships come ashore, they put ready-made fish oil, fish meal, etc. obtained from fish on the market directly. In this type of fishing, whale, cod, etc. fish are hunted. The leading countries in the world in this field are the USA and Japan. In professional fishing, fish flocks (migrations) and breeding periods are meticulously monitored. The locations of the shoals are found with the help of radar systems. On the radar screen, traces of fish flocks can be seen and the fish can be hunted in that direction.
Amateur fishermen are two types among themselves, namely, above and underwater. Underwater fishing is done with waterproof clothing that can keep the fisherman underwater for a long time, palettes that allow him to move freely in the water attached to the feet, air tube that allows him to breathe and a rifle that catches the fish. Plunging into the water, the fisherman catches his prey by throwing a speargun with a rifle. Above water, amateur fishing is done with the help of fishing rods. The hook is attached to the end of the ropes called “fishing line” made of nylon. To ensure that the hooks sink under the water, a sinker weighing 20-50-100-150 grams etc. is attached to the end. This type of fishing is carried out at sea, stream, lake and riversides or in small boats in places that are very close to the shore. This type, which is the most common form of amateur fishing, also differs according to the type of fishing equipment used. Various kinds of baits are attached to the fishing line according to the season and type of fish hunt in this type of fishing.
Japan, England, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Germany, and Italy give great importance to fishing in the world. Taking advantage of this kind of richness of the great oceans, they meet the needs of both themselves and other countries in abundance. Floating fleets are a major source of income for these states.
Importance of Fishing
FAO’s World Fish and Fisheries Status (SOFIA) report state that fishing is vital to achieving a world goal without hunger and malnutrition. According to this report, it is emphasized that the future of growth should be sustained in strengthening fisheries management regimes, reducing harm and loss, and combating problems such as illegal fishing, pollution of marine and other resources and climate change.
The importance of fish and seafood in nutrition is of course very important. In the world and in our country, good use of resources, economic profitability, growth, and contribution to struggle against poverty should be taken into consideration. One of the most important problems can be said to reduce the proportion of fish catching areas where higher amounts of biological sustainability are required.
In 2016, 90.9 million tons of fish were produced through sea fishing. This figure indicates a decrease of approximately 2 million tons compared to the previous year. For years, the world has been consuming increasing amounts of fish. Understanding the impact of fish on human health can be an important factor in this consumption as well as increasing world population. The aquaculture sector, which expanded rapidly in the 1980s and 90s, consumed 10 kg of fish per capita in the 1960s and reached 20.4 kilograms in 2016.
In 2018, the volume of aquaculture production reached 80 million tons. Thus, 53% of the total fish consumption used for nutritional purposes was achieved in this way. Although the growth of aquaculture seems to have slowed down, it is expected to continue to expand, especially in Africa. On the other hand, efforts to use these fish in feed production in order to reduce the amount discharged back into the sea or discarded after capture are thought to help meet the ongoing increase in demand for fish products.
About 59.9% of the major commercial fish species followed by the World Health Organization (FAO) are biologically sustainable, while 33.1 percent report that they are biologically unsustainable. This is reportedly alarming. International troops draw attention to scientific-based efforts aimed at better-regulating fish supply and restoring overfishing, illegal fishing, and destructive fishing methods and restoring beds.
The fact that sustainable fishing in the world is observed in developing countries, too many boats catch very little fish, overcapacity and the use of the fish bed adversely affect the situation. However, improved fisheries management and more conscious use of beds in developed countries affect resource conservation positively. In order to fight this; political coordination, finance, and human resource management, and the use of advanced technologies to monitor fisheries are needed.
Climate change and environmental pollution are other concern for fishing. Even if it is shown that climate change-related play in total global fishing levels is below 10%; climate change has an important impact on the determination of fishing places. It is assumed that the amount of fish to be caught will decrease in many tropical regions and increase in the moderate parts of the north.
2018 World Fisheries and Aquaculture Status
- Total global fish production in 2016: 171 million tons
- Sea fishing: 79.3 million tons
- Freshwater fishing: 11.6 million tons
- Culture production: 80 million tons
- The portion of the products used in human nutrition: 151.2 million tons
- Discarding production between capture and consumption or wasted: 27%
- Value of all marine and cultural products in 2016 with initial sales figures: $ 362 billion
- Number of people employed in fishing and aquaculture worldwide: 59.6 million
- The proportion of women in this: 14%
- The region with the highest number of fishermen and culture growers: Asia (85 percent of worldwide employment)
- World’s largest fish manufacturer and exporter: China
- The world’s largest consumer of fish and fish products: 1. EU 2. USA 3. Japan.
Fisheries and Their Contribution to Economy
Points that are important in aquaculture are:
To meet the demand for rapidly increasing seafood,
Meeting the raw materials in the industrial sector,
Increasing labor force participation,
Obtaining an increase in foreign exchange by meeting exports,
Contribution to rural development,
These substances are important for the protection of natural resources and the protection of biological diversity.
Handling of Fish
Fish caught by fishermen are handled in various ways. Freshly consumed fish is either sold to customers as soon as they arrive at the shore, or is placed in crates with ice and sent to the interior. The fish are frozen and sold in special packages after slicing or removing the fillet. Especially sardines, tuna, anchovies, and salmon are processed as canned food.
In some countries, herring, cod, and whiting are smoked and stored. Mackerel is salted and dried in the sun, then consumed. Some fish such as anchovies are cooked and ground into flour. Fish meal is used as a feed for livestock or as fertilizer.
Scales of some fish species are used to make artificial pearls. Shark and cod skin is used in making leather bags, shoes and gloves; even glue can be obtained. Fat extracted from the liver of the cod is evaluated in the pharmaceutical industry.
Benefits of Eating Fish
Fish is a food that both children and adults should consume regularly in terms of its rich vitamin content and strong nutritional value. Although it varies according to the sea and the seasons it lives in, especially in the winter months, a fresh and wide variety of fish, at least 2-3 days a week should be at the table.
- Protects the immune system
Especially consumed during the season, fish is a necessary food for strengthening the immune system thanks to the fatty acids it contains. The fish has been proven to protect the body against influenza and infections. Fish should be consumed regularly twice a week, especially during the season.
- Omega3 store
Unlike other animal-derived foods, fish have omega3 fatty acids called unsaturated fatty acids instead of saturated fats. Omega3 is an extremely useful fat that is not produced by the body and is found in most fish. It is especially rich in salmon, mackerel, sardines, and tuna. Besides its protective feature of cardiovascular health, it reduces the risk of yellow spot disease in the eye and helps regulate blood sugar.
- Supports mental development
Fish is an iodine-rich food source and plays an important role in the development of intelligence. It is seen that children who eat fish increase their intelligence points and their learning ability. Especially in the first three months of pregnancy, it was found that the mothers who consume regular fish have kids having strong hand functions such as learning, perception, and grip during infancy. In the composition of the fish that supports the development of intelligence in infants and children, DHA plays a very active role in the healthy development of vision and neurological development.
- Keeps your heart healthy
Fish is a full heart-friendly. The omega3 fatty acids in the fish reduce bad cholesterol (LDL) and increase good cholesterol (HDL). It provides the reduction of triglycerides in the blood. Reduces blood pressure, protects against heart failure and risk of stroke, increases blood flow by preventing clotting.
- Strengthens the bones
Fish also strengthen the bones. In particular, small fish that can be eaten with awn bone is rich in calcium, provides strengthening of the bones. With this feature, it is recommended that people who experience bone resorption, menopausal women and elderly people consume plenty of fish.
- Repairing cells
Proteins are a very important source of nutrients for the body. Some foods, including fish, form good quality protein fats. Protein has an important role in repairing cells and making new tissues. Therefore, fish rich in protein must be consumed.
- Protects from depression
In the busy pace of work and the mobility of everyday life, problems can sometimes overlap. Especially in individuals who are prone to stress in terms of personality, stress can be replaced by depression. Studies, especially salmon, mackerel and tuna fish that contain a high percentage of Omega3 fatty acids have shown great benefits against depression.
- Reduces the risk of diabetes
Omega-3 significantly reduces the risk of diabetes in young people. Increases the function of insulin and protects against Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it will be beneficial for diabetics and people at risk to consume lots of fish.
- Reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s
It is of great importance to consume fish twice a week against Alzheimer’s, which is increasingly common as a disease of the age with the prolongation of human life. One of the benefits of fish oil and Omega3 fatty acid is that it reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s. Fish, which is a powerful weapon in preventing memory loss caused by Alzheimer’s, should be consumed in particular as steaming or grilling.
- Useful for joint pain
Omega3 fatty acids are one of the most powerful nutrient components that show anti-inflammatory effect by recycling the mechanisms that cause tissue damage. Fish consumption has important benefits in reducing joint rheumatism and relieving existing pains, especially in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Fish meat is healing for many ailments from lowering high cholesterol to strengthening metabolism, skin beauty to joint health. Research shows that regular fish consumption reduces the risk of death in heart diseases by 36 percent.
- Low-fat content
The fact that the fish is a good source of protein allows the person to stay full longer. The fact that it is cooked in a short time and the fish and salad pair is a satisfying meal is, of course, the reason for the choice. It doesn’t matter whether small or large fish are beneficial for health. Omega 3 fatty acids, which are essential for the body and are not produced in the human body, protect us against the risks of cardiovascular disease. In addition, many studies have shown positive effects on musculoskeletal, bone and joint health, immune system and brain, and nervous system. Fish are less fat and less caloric than red meat (except for excess fat fish), they do not cause you to gain weight. Fish proteins are much easier to digest because they are easily broken down by digestive enzymes. In addition, the body makes maximum use of these proteins. Grilled fish, plenty of green salad, and brown bread are sufficient for balanced nutrition at a meal. Besides, vitamin A and fatty acids found in fish have positive effects on retinal cells and visual function.
- Abundant vitamins
The fish is also rich in fat-soluble vitamins and minerals. A, B group vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B12), D, K vitamins are abundant in fish. With the protective fatty acids, it contains, it is one of the foods that heart patients should not miss from their tables. It contains both high amounts of Vitamin A, which plays an important role in strengthening the body’s immune system, and vitamin D, which is involved in bone health and development. Fish is also rich in iodine as well as iron and zinc, which are very important minerals for the body. Small fish that can be eaten with awns such as tuna and sardines are a good source of calcium and phosphorus as well.
- Refreshes cells, improves skin
Fish is the first among the foods that keep you young. What distinguishes fish from other sources of protein is the type of fat and the number of fatty acids present in it. This type of fat in fish and fatty acid contributes to the regeneration of cells. Eating fish recreates amino acids, the building blocks of cells. The protein is digested and broken down into amino acids and used for cell renewal. If not enough protein is taken, your body’s aging process is accelerated.
- Improves children’s perception and attention
Fish consumption is very important for children of growing age. Children who eat fish at least once a week develop their perception and attention. In fish, protein, vitamin D, phosphorus and calcium are abundant which are the necessary substances for the body. The amino acids contained in the proteins in fish make important contributions to the body. Vitamin D, on the other hand, plays a major role in the development of the body’s bone system, and in the prevention of bone resorption that may occur in advanced age.