Fishing is now recognized as a well-known profession. However, while it is a profession for some, many also seek fishing for pleasure. Even according to most, fishing is a passion. Fishing is closely related to the hunting of marine organisms living in the natural cycle as well as the artificial production of these organisms. Fish and other marine organisms produced in artificial seas or ponds have become one of the largest branches of the fishing industry. Archaeologists have found bone fishing hooks made of bone dating back to 3,000 BC, which shows that humans have been fishing for thousands of years. Therefore, it is possible to say that fishing is almost as old as human history.
History of Fishing
- Fishing with Fishing Rod
It is known that people hunt fish by different methods from the first ages and attach importance to fish by seeing fish as a valuable nutrient. Even though there are thousands of years in between, hunting materials similar to the current fishing hooks are made of bone or wood pieces and in some of these hooks there are pieces of equipment to catch back to the fish, similar to those we use now. The first fishermen were trying to hunt fish as we do today, by using the animal hair and ropes made of plants tied to these hooks.
- Pond Fishing
Aquaculture has in fact been carried out by many civilizations on a regular basis and carp and fresh mullet have been raised in ponds. It is known that mullet and carp were grown in freshwater ponds during the Old Roman Empire and that this cultivation continued in the shadows until the end of the Middle Ages. In fact, the Chinese advanced the business a little further in 3000 BC by filling the saltwater into the pool they produce mullet.
- Cage Fishing
Now, the fishing method made with solid wire and iron frame used in the oceans and seas was used by the fishermen of the early ages. Of course, they were not as robust and durable as the current reed and fish cages. They were made of tree branches. Today, in many undeveloped African countries, this primitive method of fishing continues. With the cages made with reeds and branches, African fishermen continue to fish with these cages, especially in the rivers and lakes of the fertile lands of the continent.
An amateur fisherman is a person engaged exclusively for sporting purposes and who uses a fishing rod. Professional fishermen call amateur fishermen joyful. Another definition is anyone fishing for sports, curiosity, and entertainment but not for commercial interest. Yes, in the depths of the sea carrying all kinds of colors, hiding mysterious surprises, tempered from the bosom, expecting a playful lively entity in steel blue with redheads glitters. To fight that creature with a chance to catch it. The amateur fisherman does not hunt for meat alone. He is a person who loves nature and takes advantage of the beauties and blessings of nature. Moreover, he is a happy person who watches the legendary beauties of the shores that take on various colors at every hour of the moonlight.
Today, air pollution in cities has become an important problem. The amateurs who are far from the effect of the carbon dioxide emitted from the exhaust pipes of the motor vehicles, the stifling smoke coming out of the factory, heating, stove chimneys, even for a while, are happy people who gain their health by filling the dustless clean air of the sea into their lungs. Moreover, while the amateur fisherman is hunting, he performs an excellent exercise with his body movements without knowing. Rowing is also a good sport. In short, the amateur fisherman does not only fish. By staying away from all kinds of thoughts in the fresh air, it helps to remove mental fatigue.
Amateur fishing is common in all countries. Especially in the United States, it has reached a very high level. Every year, 18 million people get a license for fishing for recreational purposes. In addition, the number of hunters without license exceeds 10 million.
The history of fisheries dates back to the beginning of human existence. Mankind became a pioneer of the fishing tradition in the early ages by fishing for food. With developing technology today, fishing has also changed in terms of form and method. Modern fishing methods were introduced with electronic devices, radars, unbreakable nets, and highly balanced fishing boats.
The most important and valuable of these is undoubtedly the fishing boats because the easiest way to catch fish is to sail. Fishing boats also differ among themselves according to their size, net type, and purpose. Every fishing boat should be strong and safe against the conditions of the sea.
- Fishing Boat Types
There are many different types of fishing boats in the world. For example, fishing boats used in Norway and fishing vessels in Italy show significant differences. There are fishing boats that are boat-style and net-throwing, and trawl-type fishing boats exceeding 50 meters in length are also available.
- Trawlers (aft or side pull)
- Turning Boats (purse seine, voli, squirrel)
- Dredging Boats
- Network Trays (gillers)
- Fishing and Tackle Boats
- Fish carrier, research type and control boats
- Features of A Fishing Boat
The fishing boats may vary depending on the type and characteristics of the fish intended to catch. Many fishing boats are expected to be fast and have good maneuverability, while others are expected to be at very low speeds. But the most important expectation is that the boat is balanced and safe according to the sea conditions. The length, width, depth, trim and even the power of the fishing boat play a very important role when necessary. Speed can be an important factor for the fishing boat to deliver the fish to the consumer quickly.
- It should be capable of making long-distance cruises safely on the high seas.
- It should be resistant to strong wave and stormy wind conditions, the balance should be good.
- Hunting equipment must be complete and appropriate.
- In order to keep the fish caught fresh, it should be possible to keep it in ice or frozen.
Trawlers are hunting by pulling the framed or tipped net behind them. The trawl nets are similar to the funnel and begin to close backward. Trawler fishing boats may pull their nets from the side or aft. Trawlers are equipped with boom guides and powerful electric windlass to pull the net. Brake and control systems are available in windlass drums. In general, the nets are controlled by steel wires and hydraulic pumps are used. Trawlers should have cold stores or ice machines to keep the fish caught fresh.
- Classic Bottom Trawlers
They are mostly used in the Mediterranean and are defined as the Mediterranean type. The nets they use work on scanning the bottom. It is used for hunting sea creatures located near the bottom of the sea. It is low-efficient, has low construction costs, and is not an innovative net. The most widely used net in all Mediterranean countries is the bottom trawl net.
- Medium Water Trawlers
Trawlers for pulling nets at the desired depth are called medium water trawlers. Medium water trawlers can work by the pulling of a single boat or by the pulling of two boats. Since medium water trawling nets are very large nets, they are difficult to be pulled by a single fishing boat and requires technology. For this reason, two fishing vessels are generally used in middle water trawling. In order to keep the trawl net at the desired level and open, the boat must travel at a constant speed of 2-4 knots. Medium water trawl nets are 20-60 meters wide and 10-50 meters high. Anchovy, sardine, mackerel, horse mackerel, and sprat are usually hunted with medium water trolls.
- Damages of Trawl Nets
Trawl nets often damage marine organisms as they scour the bottom of the sea. Trawling is completely banned in some seas. Network dimension checks are frequently performed.
Purse Seine Boats
Purse seiners are fishing boats. The way it works is to surround the flock with a net and catch the fish. Purse seiners are used to catch fish near the surface and in the flock. This type of surface-living fish is called pelagic fish. Purse seine boats are very diverse. They should usually have high maneuverability and be fast enough. On the stern of the boats, there is a reel pulley, ie windlass, boom send system, and drums for the withdrawal of heavy nets full of fish. Many purse seiners are composed of two boats. One of them is a purse seine (net boat) and the other is a small but powerful engine. When the net is discarded, one end of the net is connected to the boat.
- Seine Net Features
There are purse seine nets with different net size and net length for each type of fish. For tuna, the net length should be between 1100 meters and 1700 meters. The nets for anchovies are 100 meters to 180 meters deep, 1100 meters long, and the mesh size is between 10-16 mm. The nets for the acorn should be 500 meters to 1100 meters tall, with a mesh size of 32 mm. With these nets, fish such as acorn, mackerel, horse mackerel, and bluefish can be hunted.
- Damages of Purse Seine Nets
It is reported that 300 thousand dolphins per year are wasted due to purse seine fishing in America. In addition, lots of seabirds and other fish are also wasted. Therefore, attention should be paid to purse seine nets.
Hunting is the job of capturing wild animals alive, wounding, or killing. Hunting is one of the first efforts of the human being who started to become competent in defending himself and protecting his species. Primitive man lived his life with hunting and gathering. The cave-era people had to hunt for food, clothing, and protection. Sport hunting appeared in ancient times. It is known that Assyrians and Persians engaged in hunting. Thus, hunting that emerged from necessity turned into a sport and entertainment vehicle with the progress of civilization. On the other hand, some hunting animals have economic value (meat, skins, teeth, oils, etc.) and continued to be hunted. Therefore, some wild animals, especially in recent centuries, have been extinct or nearly extinct; in many countries, special protected areas are established for these animal species and their hunting is restricted or prohibited by law.
Hunting animals are classified as follows: Large game animals (wild boar, deer, roe deer, etc.), coastal game animals (big carnival snipe, woodcock, woodpecker, etc.), furry game animals (fox, otters, skunk, etc.), daytime predators (hawks, vultures, etc.), night predators (owls, eagle owls, etc), Corvus (crows, magpie, raven, etc), large and predatory animals (lion, tiger, panther, elephant, rhino, crocodile, buffalo, etc.).
Nowadays, hunting, which has the appearance of a sport depending on certain rules, is divided into land and sea hunting (it is necessary to exclude large scale fish hunting or fur animal hunting for economic purposes). In addition, underwater fishing has become a highly developed and widespread sport in recent years. The hunting vehicles have been in continuous development since antiquity, but have remained essentially the same: Tools such as rope and lasso for capturing animals alive; spears, arrows, bows, and then rifles to capture by killing or wounding. In addition, trained animals are often used as an aid to hunting. Dogs are the leading animals.
Hunting dogs are used in both individual and continuous hunting. In addition, various predatory birds, especially hawks, are also utilized. Another method is to set up a trap. The main goal of hunting is to break records.
History of Hunting
The Stone Age people have lived hunting for thousands of years. They sheltered in the caves, made weapons of sharp and hard stones. They hunted large animals such as mammoth, reindeer, and bear with arrows, spears, and mace. Humans were not as strong and agile as animals, but their intelligence and weapon-making skills enabled them to succeed in hunting. They also trained some animals, such as dogs, to help them hunt. Most of the time, when they drive a herd of deer or wild horses to a cliff and hunt them, they got enough food for the whole community. People continued to hunt after learning to farm and raise animals to feed their bellies.
Setting up a trap is also one of the hunting methods. People trap wild animals for their flesh and furs, sometimes to prevent damage or to conduct scientific research. There are many kinds of traps. A steel trap is used to catch furry animals without damaging their fur. Such traps, which do not kill the animal immediately and make it suffer until it is killed by the hunter, are banned in many countries of the world. The mousetrap, as we know it, is one such trap, reinforced with a steel spring.
Another type of trap consists of a spring and a loop. A flexible branch can act as a spring. The loop is made of wire and the branch is tied down by pulling down with a rope to act as a trigger. When the hunt gnaws the rope covered with salt, the bow rises when the rope breaks. The noose surrounding the prey traps the animal in the air. Tunnels from the narrowing network are also used to catch birds. Birds are smeared into the wide mouth of the net or drawn with bait and caught in the narrow mouth. One method that primitive people used to hunt large animals was trap pits. In a place where traces of prey were often seen, a pit was dug and covered with branches and leaves. Pointed stakes at the bottom of the pit would kill the animal as soon as it fell.
In ancient times, two stumps were placed on top of each other. When the prey touched the food, the upper stump would fall and the prey stuck between the two stumps. In these traps, when a box is used instead of a log, the animal is caught alive. When the catch is pressed into the trap, the lid closes. Such traps are used when catching animals for scientific research or zoos. Live capture and hunting labeling provide valuable information about animals. The animal is released after labeling; when caught again, it is understood where he migrated.
Hunting with eagle refers to hunting with catching birds that are caught and trained for prey when they are small. Today, despite the decline, the Kyrgyz and Kazakh people continue to hunt with eagles in Central Asia. Seljuk and Ottoman apply a method in which it is forgotten in Turkey. Hunting for animals for fur is one of the most popular hunting types. Hunters interested in fur trade set up traps and hunt furry animals such as beaver, mink, muskrat, fox, badger, gum, lynx, otters, raccoon and wolf. Fur hunting in Canada is still an important industry. This type of hunting brought about the criticism of individuals and organizations in the 20th century as it caused the descent of some animal species. Most of the furs sold today are obtained from animals grown on private farms.
Hunters who kill animals with only arrows and spears for the purpose of providing food do not cause the destruction of any species of animals. However, hunters hunting with rifles for trade and profit may pose this danger. For example, in the 19th century, hunters virtually destroyed bison in North America for the meat trade. In Africa, on hunting parties called safari, animals were shot for both sports and profit. By the 20th century, people began to realize that there would be no animals left to hunt unless hunting was controlled. Today, hunting of large animals in many regions has been under strict control. For example, it is only allowed to hunt elephants if their numbers increase in the controlled area. However, poaching is still an important problem.
Game animals are animals, birds, and fish that are hunted for sport. Today, almost all hunting animals are allowed to hunt. However, illegal or unauthorized hunting is used to earn money. For example, salmon and trout are often hunted without permission. In order to protect valuable fish strains, severe punishment has been imposed on unauthorized fishing in many countries of the world. In regions where African game animals are protected, or in countries rich in game animals, authorities have taken measures against unauthorized hunters who come to kill valuable animals for their fur or teeth.
Today, those who want to hunt with a rifle must get a license. Production of hunting weapons, trade and possession are also regulated by law. The good hunter expertly watches his prey and approaches it without discernment. He can kill his prey without any pain with his sniper. However, many people regard hunting as a cruel sport, as hunting inflicts pain and suffering on animals. On the other hand, environmental studies have shown that the number of wild animals should not fall below a certain level in order to maintain the balance of nature.
- Hunting Seasons
Hunting seasons are calculated by taking into consideration the time of breeding and bringing the offspring into adulthood. The seasons have been set to ensure that animals are not extinct and are not victims of the wilderness. For this reason, hunting starts in mid-August and ends in late February. In river fish fishing, there is a ban on fishing between mid-March and late April. In sea fishing, hunting takes place between September and April. We must comply with the hunting season dates in order not to cause suffering to the creatures who want to survive in nature and wildlife.
What Are the Types of Hunting?
Hunting is divided into three as drive, bait hunting, and search hunting.
It consists of multiple hunters following and catching the creature they want to hunt. The most important aspects of this type of hunting are good aiming, location-direction determination and survival in nature. This point is very important for hunters. Because the phrase “the hunter becomes the hunted” may actually come true.
- Bait Hunting
It is a hunting type where the hunter waits for the prey. One of the most important issues to be considered in bait hunting is standing still for a long time and having a successful camouflage. At the same time you need to choose the ground you will wait on, the tools you will use and the color of the clothes you will wear right. You can hunt many animals in this way.
- Search Hunt
Search hunt is a kind of hunting that is usually done during the day. In this type, one of the important issues is that the hunter must know where to hunt and must walk for a long time.
- Things to Consider When Hunting
The hunting person must have obtained the certificates by receiving the necessary training and must be sufficiently knowledgeable in matters such as hunting equipment and the use of weapons. The hunting must be carried out according to the time period and procedure determined by the type of game animals. It is everyone’s responsibility to nature to show the necessary sensitivity to proper hunting. It should not be forgotten that hunting is not a sport of killing blindly and it should be done in the respect of nature and wildlife, just like the value judgments of nomadic societies for the blessings they give to nature.
- Hunting Animals
Although hunting animals are generally divided into two as big game and small game animals, there is another classification that separates them as the hairy game and feathery game animals. Deer, pigs, wolves, foxes and the like are called hairy hunting animals. Birds, on the other hand, are called feathery game animals. In the Middle Ages, hunting some game animals such as pigs, deer, pheasants in Germany was only for nobles. Therefore, these animals were called superior hunting animals. Animals such as roe deer, rabbits, and foxes that were allowed for everyone to hunt were called lesser hunting animals.
- Hunting Procedures
In ancient times, prey animals were caught by traps, followed by dogs or domesticated birds of prey such as falcons. For animals such as pigs, foxes and roe deer, hunting was made with many people on horseback or on foot. The animal was exhausted after a long period of follow-up and then easily hunted by enclosing. The invention of firearms has changed traditional hunting patterns. Today, hunting animals are driven on a façade formed by hunters, either by persecutors or by chasing dogs, so that the animals are caught or killed.
- Hunting Weapons
Ancient people make use of various weapons to provide their nutrients. For example, in the Stone Age, tree poles, stone axes, and later spear, pike, pins, arrows, and traps were used. Since the weapons were insufficient, tricks were used to catch the animals. The fire was lit, the pits were opened, the animal was driven towards the steep cliffs. After the raising of farm animals, hunting gradually began to become a sport. The start of breeding of hunting dogs coincides with those times. The use of firearms in hunting is after the Crusades. The first weapon that worked in this area was the lighter rifles. Although hunting with firearms developed in Germany, dog hunting developed in France.
Hunting weapons are similar to war weapons, but they are much lighter than them. Double-barreled hunting rifles are used for birds and small animals. Grooved riffles are used to hunt large prey. There are also triple hunting rifles that perform these two tasks. The top two barrels of these rifles, called drilling, are flat and the bottom barrel is grooved. Bullets used in weapons vary according to the size of the hunt. Small pellets are used for birds where special bullets called dumdum bullets are used for large animals such as crocodiles, rhinos and elephants. These bullets explode once they are stuck in the flesh of the animal.
Dogs used in hunting are divided into varieties according to the jobs they perform. Dogs belonging to each of these varieties may also be of completely different breeds. The main hunting dogs are:
1 – Dogs that stop when they find the prey: They are mostly used for hunting birds and rabbits. These are dogs of different breeds such as a pointer, setter, spaniel, and griffon.
2 – Dogs that receive the hunt without stopping: Their difference from the others is that they catch the hunt as soon as they see it.
3 – Dogs that bring the shot prey: These animals do not seek to find the hunt, they just bring the shot prey.
4 – Dogs chasing prey: When they see the prey they bark, then chase the hunt to drive it in front of the hunter.
5 – Underground hunting dogs: They are used to take the animals such as foxes, badgers with nests in the ground out of their nests. These are long-bodied animals having small heights.
6 – Hounds: They can even catch the rabbit running very fast. Also raised as a toy dog.
Planning for Successful Hunting
Investigate the terrain: Get to know the terrain by hiking in the hunting area. Consider swampy areas, soft rocks, overturned trees and anything that might prevent you from hunting on your route. Take care not to damage the natural environment of other animals. Try to memorize the places you walk in. You may also be able to take photos.
Check the weather: It is best to be prepared for bad weather. Knowing in advance can save your life.
Get the stuff you need: Missing material in the wilderness can cause you difficulty getting rid of the danger. Create a checklist and prepare your stuff in advance. In addition to the first aid kit, wear clothing with enough shimmering orange to allow other hunters to see and recognize you.
Inform your friends and family about your plan: Informing in advance can make things easier for you to get help if you get lost or injured. Do not always rely on the mobile phone alone.
Obtain the required permissions: Make sure that you have the hunting license and that you have the necessary permissions for the hunting area.
Review your map: Bring your memory to the road. Use the best and safest route for hunting.