A fishing net is a tool knitted from special threads in the form of a cage for fishing. It is shaped by knitting according to the characteristics and depth of the place such as the sea and lake where it will be used and the size of the fish to be caught. It is generally divided into two as those that are thrown perpendicular and parallel to the shore and those used in the form of a bag. So how do you think about fishing nets work? Let’s check it.
In both types of nets, there are weights (lead balls, etc.) that will allow the net to sink into the water at one end, and floating items (cork plates, etc.) that will allow the net to remain in the water at the other end. The opening of the fishing net between four nodes is called a mesh. This clearance, measured in millimeters, depends on the type of fish to be caught. In trammel nets and fish traps, the eyes allow the fish to be caught by the gills and they are not larger than the fish’s head. On the other hand, in purse seines and throw nets, which have spinning nets and collect fish by bagging, the escape of fish is prevented by the small mesh size of the nets.
These eyes are suitable for very small fishes to protect the fish species. Since the drag nets scan the sea bottom, their use is prohibited in some areas. The nets are generally named according to their shape. Since they are tools that have been used for a long time, terms related to usage have entered our language. Today, the ways of using fishing nets have developed as much as the variety and form. The nets are thrown from large boats, machines, to the place where fish are detected by sound echoes (sonar), and collected by net cranes.
Features of Fishing Nets: How They Work
Fishing nets used for fishing in seas, rivers, lakes, and streams are nets that are knitted parallel to each other with ropes or fishing lines at certain intervals. Fishing net, one of the most effective tools among fishing products, catches the fish by surrounding it. Containment is a very efficient fishing style as it takes place both vertically and horizontally. It is widely used especially in inland fisheries. If the fishing net, which collapsed to the bottom after being thrown into the designated area, was thrown from the shore after waiting for a certain period of time, if it was thrown from the boat with the help of a rope, it is quickly pulled with the help of the mechanism. As it is gathered, it takes the shape of a bag and the fish inside it are separated. The threads used in fishing nets are generally made of polyamide, polyethylene, and polypropylene. However, the most used material in production is polyamide, which is nylon yarn.
The feature of net yarns is that single yarns of certain thickness and density are formed by being brought together and twisted in a certain number of times. The twist number is important for the yarn not to fray and to be resistant to breakage. Also, twisting the threads makes it more useful while increasing the flexibility of the fishing net. Fishing nets, which have many dimensions according to the area of use, should be well known and selected accordingly, such as resistance in air and water, breaking force, weight, fineness, twisting number, elongation, and immersion speed in the water. Fishing nets knitted by hand or machines are produced by determining the number of eyes according to the size and depth of the net. Large fishing nets are generally used on wide coasts such as seas and lakes, depending on their intended use. If you prefer a large fishing net, it would be more beneficial to put a net in areas with dense fish flocks.
Although it is generally used by boats, it is also suitable for shore and boat fishing. Small-sized fishing nets can be used easily in rivers, streams, and lakes. For efficient fishing, fishing nets should be used with the right method as well as produced from quality materials. In addition, you should collect regularly and check whether there is waste after use in order to prevent the fishing net from interfering with each other. It is important for efficient fishing to take into account many criteria such as fish type, water depth, and structure while choosing a fishing net which is divided into various models according to rope quality, number of eyes, and size.
Fishing nets divided into groups and have many models in line with factors such as the fish type, area, water, and depth. Trammel nets are divided into two. These are mostly used for carp fishing. The fish approaching the trammel net gets caught in the net while passing to the opposite side, and by opening the pockets of the net, it takes the shape of a bag and prevents the fish from coming out. The second type of trammel nets is mostly used for fishing fish such as catfish and northern pike. The fish approaching the net hits it and is caught by its gills while trying to cross over.
Surrounding nets are generally used in areas such as lakes and streams. It is also known as the purse seine net. It is used for fishing fish species such as pearl mullet. It surrounds the flock of fish and keeps it inside, and the two ends of the net are joined and pulled by human or motor power. Drag nets on the other hand are bag-shaped nets that are pulled from boats by dragging. It can also be thrown from the shore. Fish species such as bonito and anchovy can be caught with a drag fishing net. Another fishing net model is the throw net. Throw nets, which are generally used for carp and trout fishing, are widely used in the inland water fishing.
The Structure and Working Mechanism of Fishing Nets
We can define fishing nets in three parts as net, bag, cork collar, and lead collar. The net is the part of the net that stands upright like a wall in the sea and varies in size according to the size of the fish. The bag is called deep pockets in some nets where fish are driven and collected. The cork collar is the part of the net that allows it to stand upright in the water and where the cork is lined up at the top. The lead collar, on the other hand, is called the lower part of the net that allows it to descend to the bottom. The collars are surrounded by girdle nets, at most one inch wide, knitted with thick twine. These nets carry both corks and heavy lead and save very fine webs of threads from being battered.
Regardless of net heights, as the lead collar is heavier than the cork collar, the nets collapse vertically. In plain nets, fish are caught as if they were in a bag, passing through the big eyes of the fan with the nets. Although there are amateurs dealing with large nets and catching large quantities of fish in every net laying, we will be talking about cutting and turning nets that amateurs will use in seas, lakes, and streams to catch a feed.
The net that provides feeds to amateurs is the trammel net. This net is highly sought after for fresh bait, which is necessary for bluefish catches. The size of amateur nets varies at least between 25 and 50 meters. This is enough for amateurs. Longer webs can also be used. Trammel nets are of two types, with Fanya, and without Fanya. Since the bait required is usually fish such as mackerel and horse mackerel, the eyes of the nets vary depending on the fish to be caught. Mesh sizes are measured in millimeters from node to node. The mesh is 20-24 mm for mackerel and (15-17) mm for horse mackerel. The size of the eyes of bonito and bluefish nets varies between (35 – 40) millimeters. The trammel net can be laid parallel to the shore or vertically as well as in the shape of a moon to find the shore.
The Snap net is mostly used from the coasts. Their size depends on the taste of the amateur and where they are used. Snap nets are placed in the desired place, either by a pole or by other means, by placing them in a wire loop. The fishes that want to be hunted are lifted quickly while they are passing over and the fish remaining in the net are easily taken from the bagging place. Net circles can be round or rectangular. There is no system for this. Snap nets are used for fish such as mullet and silver in the sea, as well as for lobsters, crabs in deep waters, and crawfish in freshwaters, by arranging their size, water, or location.
It is enough to tie pieces of tripe to one or two places in the middle of the net. Lobsters and crayfish, whose feet are caught in the meshes, are removed from the net at regular intervals and then released into the water. Flat white stones should be placed in the sea on the lower and upper sides of the coasts where the snap net is used. Watching the arrival of the fish, the amateur can easily see the fish passing over the white stones and take action and remove the net. For example, when the watcher informs that the fish is coming in the fishing net with the silverfish hunt, if his friend in the net sprinkles a handful of sand on the net, the fishes that cluster on the net can be easily caught by running to the flickering sound of the sand.
Two very large-eyed nets with eye sizes (15-20) centimeters, from cork collar to lead collar, are equipped on both sides of the small-eyed meshes. The name of this two-sided and large-eyed network is trammel. The threads of the trammel net are thin threads like tor net threads. The height of the thin mesh net between the trammel and the cork should be at least half times higher than the trammel. The fish hitting the net puts the turd into the trammel and is caught by staying in the resulting bag. This type of net is a hunting tool mostly used in freshwater. It is similar to an air signal bag in aircraft areas. It is done by lining up the shrinking tree or iron circles into a thin and tall grandchild. Tree hoop is preferred to stand upright in the water. The length of the net is usually 1-1.5 fathoms. It may shrink accordingly. These nets are widely used in freshwater. Catfish, carp, and pike can be caught with these nets depending on their size. A small variety is also used in crawfish hunting.
Information About Purse Seiners: One of the Best Fishing Nets
Seine nets are one of the most effective fishing tools we use for fishing of pelagic fish among the group of surrounding nets and all nets. We hunt pelagic fish that form a herd with purse seine nets. As a working principle, it is based on encapsulating the fish herd, which we have detected with our fish finder device, by circling it in a circle with a net. A purse seine net consists of a long and deep net and a second section where our fishing net is the thickest (20 -25 no nylon thread) and strongest and the fish are compressed. The end of the net attached to the boat is called a veil. Cork and lead collar ropes are connected to the main net with strong secondary nets with wide eyelets. Lashes are metal iron rings that 18 or 20mm diameter steel rope passes through, which is used to shrink the bottom of the net.
Purse-seiners used to be divided into two groups as those used by two boats and by a single boat in ancient times. While purse seine nets, which were used with two boats until the 1970s, were quite common all over the world, today only one boat type purse seine nets are used with the increase of machinery and technology. The fishing vessels, which used to be wooden, are completely made of sheet metal, 8 mm thick. Purse seine nets used in anchovy hunting have a depth of 400 to 800 fathoms and 60-100 fathoms. An average anchovy purse is 640 fathoms long. In anchovy purse, the basic mesh size is between 10-16 mm (as a full mesh opening).
Bonito purse-seine net is made in various sizes between 300 and 600 fathoms. Since the mesh opening is around 32 mm in the whole of the net, it can be used in the fishing of horse mackerel, bluefish, sardines, mackerel, and similar species. The depth of the net is approximately 80 fathoms. The cost of such a network is $ 800 – 900,000 at today’s prices. The purse seine nets used in tuna fishing and the size and equipment of the boats using these nets are more developed than the other two nets. Tuna fishing is done using the most advanced fish finders. Tuna nets are generally 7 to 11 lengths, that is, between 590 and 910 fathoms, and the depth of the net varies between 90 and 120 fathoms. A polypropylene (PP) rope of 22-24 mm thickness and 750-fathom length is used on the cork collar of the tuna net, which is an average of 9 lengths, and a 14 mm diameter and 825-fathom length is used on the lead collar.
Trammel Nets and Their Working Principles
The most important nets required in hunting are trammel nets. So what is the trammel net and how is it used? It is another advanced method known for hunting fish. Trammel nets are divided into plain nets (gill net) and looping nets. Plain nets are more selective than looping nets. The looping net, on the other hand, works by equipping two parts or a part of the net known as the main net with another net with a much wider mesh opening, and the loop allows the fish to be caught by entangling the net by forming a bag in that part of the net. Trammel nets are made by laying a net that can be dropped into the sea for very long distances.
One end of the net is equipped with cork (cork collar) and the other end is equipped with lead (lead collar). Often the net left in the sea in the form of a curtain is prepared for hunting. In trammel nets, fish are caught by entangling the net in front of the operculum, behind the operculum, dorsal fin, or other extensions. The gill net is also a trammel net and hunting takes place when the fish are caught by the gills of this net. The perimeter of the area where the gills of the desired size fish are located is adjusted as a mesh opening and this net is extended to the mushroom collar surface and the lead collar towards the bottom like a curtain.
It is generally used in the fishing of pelagic fish such as mackerel and bonito. With this method, the error rate of the fish to be attached to the net is very low, and the damage to the stocks is very low due to its high selectivity. The selectivity of the gill net depends on factors such as the mesh material, mesh width, network visibility, shape, flexibility, and mesh placement. Fishing with highly selective gill nets is a very important and simple method for the continuation of stocks and sustainable fishing.
Throw Net Models
Fishing net selection is one of the most important details when fishing. There are some factors that should be considered when choosing a fishing net, which is one of the most important factors affecting fishing success. Fishing nets are quite diverse and specially produced. In general, fishing net types are determined according to the fish to be caught. Generally, mullet fish are caught by fishing nets. These hunts were made in deep waters. While this hunt is done, a fishing net is thrown over the fishes between the rowing boats. In this fishing method, the area where fishing is done is very important for the success of fishing. At this stage, the use of the fishing net, which should be thrown into the sea with the right method, requires experience.
On the other hand, it is very important to be careful in the use of throw net models and to use nets made of quality materials. Otherwise, the nets may get mixed up more quickly or the desired performance may not be achieved. Many factors such as the depth of the area to be thrown, the structure of the water, and fish type should be taken into consideration and fishing should be done in this way. Throw (Cast) net fishing is one of the most common fishing methods today. In general, models made of nylon yarn are used for the throw net.
The reason for this is that these models do not wear out easily and provide the advantage of continuous use. In addition, throw net models made of different yarns and materials for different purposes can be preferred. Generally used throw net models are obtained by knitting with 6-7 numbered yarns with a distance of 15-18 mm. In addition, the throw net models with a shirring model are knitted with a 6-numbered yarn with a mesh size of 16 mm. Throw nets for fishing net in models with cartilages are a model used in deeper waters. It is obtained with yarn number 4 with a mesh size of approximately 16 mm.
The most important feature is that it is knitted in 2 parts and then combined. The plain throw mesh models have a simpler production style. It can be prepared with any preferred style of knitting. The feature of these throw nets is that some of them have a towing rope, but generally this rope is not. Which of these varieties will be preferred and used is determined according to fishing habits and the fish to be hunted. These nets in general have options such as 4 kg 450 eyes, 5 kg 450 eyes, 7 kg 450 eyes. Among these options, the appropriate one can be chosen. There is also a special hand-knit throw net with 600 eyes knitted from number 9 yarn with 16 mm mesh. It is among the most preferred models.
Fishing With Throw Nets
Before describing this hunting style, we want to point out that it is not a system we approve of. Because the aim of Amateur Fishing is to enjoy and accordingly to do sports. But this does not mean that you cannot enjoy this style or do sports. Of course, throw net hunt is a hunting style that requires a certain amount of work and completely empties the brain during its construction. What we mean is that it will be more enjoyable to continue the hunt by catching the fish one by one or at most 2-3 pieces in the fishing systems made.
Another use of throw nets is in relatively deep water. Two rowing boats facing each other catch the net on the fish, which they had caught while the flock passed between them. The priority in this hunting style starts with identifying the spreading pattern equipped with the right nets according to the usage areas. You can choose one of the models knitted in different ways, taking into account factors such as the depth of the place to be thrown and the underwater structure. So what are these net types?
- Pocket Throw Nets: It is a model consisting of nylon net yarn and knitted in one piece. It is knitted from 6-7 no yarn with a distance of 15-18 mm to prevent it from aging easily.
- Shirred Throw Nets: It is knitted with 6 no yarn with 16 mm mesh. In this way, 800 eyes are completed and then the process is finished by touching the 40 eyes straight.
- Wedge Throw Nets: This spreader is used in deep water. It is knitted from 4 no yarn at a distance of 16mm. The feature of this model is that it is knitted from 2 parts and joined later. It has 15 flat eyes with 1000 eyes in one piece.
- Plain Throw Nets: It is a simple throw net. It can be prepared with any knitting style from the previous models. The feature of these nets is that some of them have a pull rope, some do not. For those who do not have a hauling rope, the hunt is on the squeezing of the fish in shallow waters, while the fish with a hauling rope is taken to the shore.
If you are going to hunt with throw net, your hand should be familiar with it. In this, you either observe by standing next to someone who does this job well, or you memorize the way it was thrown by watching the videos online. But there is no such difficult situation. I will explain in detail how it should be done in the following sections. The important point here is to know where and how to use these nets. If you know these, you can easily obtain many throw net models that are not that high in cost and use them in the appropriate places.
There are throwing methods according to their usage areas. For example, the classic shape that can be taken directly into the water whether with a boat or standing in shallow water. Here the net is held securely with both hands. The free place is thrown to the shoulder. Then the net is given a slight rotation and thrown into the water. Of course, care should be taken not to scare the fish while doing this. For this, the fact that the water is slightly wavy and cloudy gives you an advantage.
The second style is used where the fish are relatively far from your current location. Here we drop some of the nets into the water. We grasp the remaining parts with 2 hands. Then we wait without frightening the fish. When they started to pass by you, we immediately throw the net in the water with the fishes at the bottom. Another use of throw net is done in relatively deep water. Two rowing boats facing each other take the net on the fish, which they had caught while the flock passed between them. This hunting style also requires a lot of patience and also has to work in harmony. Most Amateur Fishermen prefer the stony river mouths, seasides, and lakeshores when searching for a hunting ground for throw nets. Pocket throw nets do very well in such areas. However, it is more difficult to use than plain sprinkling.
By folding the net in three, you grasp the tip with your left hand, throw one part of the bullets on your shoulder at the bottom and wrap the remaining part of the bullets from the right hand to the elbow, and by turning slightly sideways, you are ready to throw as soon as the fishes arrive. This system is frequently used to close the passageways of fish. After throwing the net, it is pulled slowly from the rope section to allow the prey to enter your pocket. The trick is to throw the net properly and set the bullets to the bottom. In this way, it is easier for fish to enter the pocket.
Some throw nets are generally used for mullet hunting in shallow areas with a sandy bottom. But in some cases, we know that it can be used in the fishing of surface fish with the boat. The difference between these two uses is that the net must touch the ground in shallow water. This is the reason why we chose a sandy bottom and flat. The features we explained above for throwing are also valid in this. However, the point to be considered when throwing is to ensure that the net is expected to collapse a little as soon as it is thrown and to be withdrawn for a long time. Otherwise, fish may escape from the bottom.
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